Journal Articles

Littlejohns P, Weale A, Kieslich K, Wilson J, Rumbold B, Rid A: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back? Scientific, policy and ethical challenges in the proposed revamp of the Cancer Drugs Fund. Lancet Oncology (online early)

Rumbold B, Weale A, Rid A, Wilson J, Littlejohns P: Public Reasoning and Health Care Priority Setting: The Case of NICE. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (forthcoming)

Wendler D, Wesley R, Pavlick M, Rid A: Do Patients Want their Families or their Doctors to Make Treatment Decisions in the Event of Incapacity, and Why? American Journal of Bioethics – Empirical Bioethics (forthcoming)

Wendler D, Wesley R, Pavlick M, Rid A: A New Method for Making Treatment Decisions for Incapacitated Patients: What do Patients Think about the Use of a Patient Preference Predictor? Journal of Medical Ethics (online early)

Cassel JB, Arkenau T, Strasser F, Higginson I, Hurst SA, Jansen L, Miller FM, Poklepovic A, Rid A, Rodón J, Del Fabbro E: Phase I cancer trials and palliative care: Antagonism, irrelevance, or synergy? Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (forthcoming)

Racine E, Jox RJ, Bernat JL, Dabrock P, Gardiner D, in der Schmitten J, Marckmann G, Rid A, Rodriguez-Arias D, Schöne-Seifert B: Determination of death: A discussion paper on responsible scholarship, clinical practices, and public engagement. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (forthcoming)

Vayena E, Brownsword R, Edwards SJ, Greshake B, Kahn J, Ladher N, Montgomery J, O’Connor D, O’Neill O, Richards MP, Rid A, Sheehan M, Wicks P, Tasioulas J: Research led by participants: a new social contract for a new kind of research. Journal of Medical Ethics (online early)

Charles A, Rid A, Davies H, Draper H: Prisoners as Research Participants: Current Practice and Attitudes in the UK. Journal of Medical Ethics (online early)

Dal-Ré R, Rid A, Emanuel EJ, Wendler D: The potential exploitation of research participants in high income countries who lack access to health care. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (online early)


Rid A, Miller FG (2016): The Ebola ring vaccination trial: promoting ethical clarity. American Journal of Public Health 106(3):432-5

Johnson R, Rid A, Emanuel EJ, Wendler D (2016): Risks of phase 1 research with healthy participants: A systematic review. Clinical Trials 13(2):149-60


Rid A, Littlejohns P, Wilson J, Rumbold B, Kieslich K, Weale A (2015): The importance of being NICE. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 108(10): 385-389

Rid A, Wesley R, Pavlick M, Maynard S, Roth K, Wendler D (2015): Patients’ priorities for treatment decision-making during periods of incapacity: Quantitative survey. Palliative & Supportive Care 13(5): 1165-83 (.pdf)

Emanuel EJ, Bedarida G, Macci K, Gabler NB, Rid A, Wendler D (2015): Quantifying the risks of non-oncology phase 1 research in healthy volunteers. British Medical Journal 350: h3271 (.pdf)

Subject of an editorial and two responses:

Kimmelman J (2015): The secret realm of phase 1 trials in healthy volunteers. British Medical Journal 350: h3444

Brendish NJ, Gbesemete DF, de Graaf H, Edwards CJ, Faust SN (2015): Phase I studies the role of publicly funded academic-healthcare partnerships. British Medical Journal 351: h3889

van den Borgert CA, Cohen AF (2015): Need for a proactive and structured approach to risk analysis when designing phase I trials. British Medical Journal 351: h3899

Bromwich D, Rid A (2015): Can informed consent to research be adapted to risk? Journal of Medical Ethics 41: 521-528 (.pdf)

Wendler D, Rid A (2015): Genetic research on biospecimens poses minimal risk. Trends in Genetics (1):11-15 (.pdf)


Rid A, Emanuel EJ (2014): Ethical considerations of experimental interventions in the Ebola outbreak. Lancet 384(9957): 1896-1899 (.pdf and podcast)

Subject of two responses:

Folayan M, Brown B, Yakubu A, Peterson K, Haire B (2014): Compassionate use of experimental drugs in the Ebola outbreak. Lancet 384(9957): 1843

Jacob ST, Crozier I, Schieffelin JS, Colebunders R (2014): Priorities for Ebola virus disease response in west Africa. Lancet 384(9957): 1843-1844

Rid A (2014): Setting risk thresholds in research: Lessons from the debate about minimal risk. Monash Bioethics Review 32(1): 63-85 (.pdf)

Rid A, Emanuel EJ (2014): Why should high-income countries help combat Ebola? Journal of the American Medical Association 312(13):1297-8 (.pdf)

Rid A (2014): How should we regulate risk in biomedical research? An ethical analysis of recent policy proposals and initiatives. Health Policy 117(3): 409-420

Rid A, Abdoler E, Robertson-Nay R, Pine SD, Wendler D (2014): Evaluating the risks of clinical research: Direct comparative analysis. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology  24(7): 390-8

Rid A, Saxena A, Baqui AH, Bhan A, Bines J, Bouesseau MC, Caplan A, Colgrove J, Dhai A, Gomez-Diaz R, Green SK, Kang G, Lagos R, Loh P, London AJ, Mulholland K, Neels P, Pitisuttithum P, Sarr SC, Selgelid M, Sheehan M, Smith PG: Placebo use in vaccine trials: recommendations of a WHO expert panel. Vaccine 32(37): 4708-12 (.pdf)

Subject of a commentary: Greenwood B (2014): The use of placebo in vaccine trials. Lancet 383 (9935): 2101-2102

Subject of a response: Byberg S, Benn CS (2015). Placebo use in vaccine trials: Caution when using active vaccines as placebo. Vaccine (online early)

Rid A, Wendler D (2014): Use of a Patient Preference Predictor to help make medical treatment decisions for incapacitated patients. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 104-129 (.pdf)

Rid A, Wendler D (2014): Treatment decision making for incapacitated patients: is development and use of a Patient Preference Predictor feasible? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 130-152 (.pdf)

Subject of a dedicated special issue with an editorial and six replies:

Rid A (2014): Will a Patient Preference Predictor Improve Treatment Decision-Making for Incapacitated Patients? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 99-103 (.pdf)

Dan Brock (2014): Reflections on the Patient Preference Predictor. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 153-160 (.pdf)

Hilde Lindemann & James Lindemann Nelson (2014): The Surrogate’s Authority. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 161-168 (.pdf)

Stephen John (2014): Patient Preference Predictors, Apt Categorisation and Respect for Autonomy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 169-177 (.pdf)

Rebecca Dresser (2014): Law, Ethics and the Patient Preference Predictor. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 178-186 (.pdf)

Scott Kim (2014): Improving Medical Decisions for Incapacitated Patients: Does Focusing on Accurate Predictions’ Lead to an Inaccurate Picture? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 187-195 (.pdf)

Peter Ditto & Cory Clark (2014): Predicting End-of-Life Treatment Preferences: Perils and Practicalities. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39(2), 196-204 (.pdf)


Abdul-Karim R, Berkman BE, Wendler D, Rid A, Khan J, Badgett T, Hull SC (2013): Disclosure of Incidental Findings from Next Generation Sequencing in Pediatric Genomic Research. Pediatrics 131:564-571


Monteverde S, Rid A (2012): Controversies in the determination of death: perspectives from Switzerland. Swiss Medical Weekly 142:w13667 (.pdf)

Kelly B, Rid A, Wendler D (2012): Systematic Review: Individuals’ Goals for Surrogate Decision Making. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 60(5):884-95


Rid A, Wendler D (2011): A Proposal and Prototype for a Research Risk Repository to Improve the Protection of Research Participants. Clinical Trials 8: 705-715

Subject of an editorial: Botkin J (2011): The value of evidence-based risk assessments. Clinical Trials 8: 685-686

Rid A, Wendler D (2011): A Framework for Risk-Benefit Evaluations in Biomedical ResearchKennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21(2): 141-179

Included in: World Health Organization, Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade, and Human Rights: WHO Research Ethics Online Training (forthcoming)

Wendler D, Rid A (2011): Systematic Review: The Effect on Surrogates of Making Treatment Decisions for Others. Annals of Internal Medicine 154(5): 336-46


Rid A, Emanuel EJ, Wendler D (2010): Evaluating the Risks of Clinical Research. Journal of the American Medical Association
304(13): 1472-79

Subject of a response: Rossi J, Nelson RM (2012): Is there an objective way to compare research risks? Journal of Medical Ethics 38: 423-427

Rid A, Wendler D (2010): Can we improve medical treatment decision-making for incapacitated patients? Hastings Center Report 40(5): 36-45

Rid A, Wendler D (2010): Risk-benefit assessment – critical review and open questions. Law, Probability, and Risk 9(3-4): 151-177

Rid A, Schmidt H (2010): The 2008 Declaration of Helsinki: first among equals in research ethics? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38(1): 143-148


Rid A, Schmidt H (2009): Die erneut überarbeitete “Deklaration von Helsinki”: wie sind die Änderungen aus ethischer Sicht zu beurteilen? Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 134(49): 2525-2528

Reprinted in: Ehni H-J, Wiesing U (Hrsg.): Die Deklaration von Helsinki: Revisionen und Kontroversen, Deutscher Ärzteverlag: Köln 2012, pp. 25-31

Rid A, Bachmann L, Wettstein V, Biller-Andorno N (2009): Would you sell a kidney in a regulated kidney market? Results of an exploratory study. Journal of Medical Ethics 35(9): 558-564 (.pdf)

Rid A (2009): Justice and Procedure: How does “accountability for reasonableness” result in fair limit-setting decisions? Journal of Medical Ethics 35(1): 12-16 (.pdf)

Subject of a response: Daniels N (2009): Just health: replies and further thoughts. Journal of Medical Ethics 35(1): 36-41

German translation: Rid A: Faire Allokationsprozesse: zum Verhältnis von substantieller und prozeduraler Gerechtigkeit in Norman Daniels’ Just Health. In: Strech D, Marckmann G (Hrsg.): Public Health Ethik, LIT Verlag: Münster 2009, pp. 159-174

Short version in German: Rid A (2012): Faire Entscheidungsprozesse und Gerechtigkeit in der Gesundheitsversorgung: das Beispiel von Norman Daniels’ Accountablity for Resaonableness. Gesundheits- und Sozialpolitik 2: 14-20

2008 and before

Obladen M, Metze B, Henrich W, Aktas A, Czernik C, Schulz-Baldes A (2008): Interdisciplinary Surveillance of Periventricular Hemorrhage Associated Conditions In Infants <1000 g. Acta Paediatrica 97(6): 731-737

Schulz-Baldes A, Biller-Andorno N, Capron AM (2007): International perspectives on the ethics and regulation of human cell and tissue transplantation. WHO Bulletin 85(12): 941-948 (.pdf)

Subject of an editorial: Noel L (2007): Current concerns in transplantation. WHO Bulletin 85(12): 905

Schulz-Baldes A, Delmonico FD (2007): Improving Institutional Fairness to Live Kidney Donors: Donor Needs must Be Addressed By Safeguarding Donation Risks and Compensating Donation Costs. Transplant International 20(11): 940-946

Schulz-Baldes A, Huseman D, Loui A, Dudenhausen J, Obladen M (2007) Neonatal end-of-life practice in a German perinatal centre. Acta paediatrica 96(5): 681-687

Schulz-Baldes A, Vayena E, Biller-Andorno N (2007) Sharing benefits in international health research. Research-capacity building as an example of an indirect collective benefit. EMBO reports 8(1): 8-13 (.pdf)

Goldschmidt I, Grahammer F, Warth R, Schulz-Baldes A, Garty H, Greger R, Bleich M (2004) Kidney and colon electrolyte transport in CHIF knockout mice. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 14(1-2): 113-120

Schulz-Baldes A, Berger S, Grahammer F, Warth R, Goldschmidt I, Peters J, Schütz G, Greger R, Bleich M (2001) Induction of the epithelial Na+ sodium channel via glucocorticoids in mineralocorticoid receptor knockout mice. Pfluegers Archiv – European Journal of Physiology 443: 297-305

Hasselblatt P, Warth R, Schulz-Baldes A, Greger R, Bleich M (2000) pH regulation in isolated in vitro perfused rat colonic crypts. Pfluegers Archiv – European Journal of Physiology 441(1): 118-124

Bleich M, Warth R, Schmidt-Hieber M, Schulz-Baldes A, Hasselblatt P, Fisch D, Berger S, Kunzelmann K, Kriz W, Schütz G, Greger R (1999) Rescue of the mineralocorticoid receptor knock-out mouse. Pfluegers Archiv – European Journal of Physiology 438: 245-254